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Coordinating Conjunctions

Coordinating Conjunctions:Coordinating conjunctions (also known as coordinators) connect words, phrases, or clauses of equivalent grammatical structure or serve as transitions between sentences. Students should memorize these seven words and their functions. Some people learn these words with the memory clue, the mnemonic, BOYFANS or FANBOYS (FOR, AND, NOR, BUT, YET, SO).

Examples of Coordinating Conjunctions:
The cars in the showroom and on the highways are large, but they are safe.
The children can go swimming, or they can go bowling.
****Note- use a comma plus the coordinating conjuction if it connects 2 independent clauses.



Coordinating Conjunctions Meaning
but shows opposition or contrast ("however")
or indicates choices or alternatives
yet shows an occurrence in spite of another occurrence
for indicates a cause will follow in a cause-effect relationship
and indicates additional information will follow
nor shows a negative option ("not this either")
so indicates a result will follow in a cause-effect relationship

Correlative Conjunctions: These are pairs of connectors that function together to join words, phrases, and clauses. Remember that the items that follow each correlative conjunction must be grammatically parallel to one another.
Examples of Correlative Conjunctions:
Not only werewolves stalk the forest at night but also vampires stalk the forest.
We hoped that either the garlic or the crosses would scare them.

 

Comments: writcent@tcc.edu

Last update: August 4, 2003

as . . . as both . . . and either . . . or
neither . . . nor not . . . but not only . . . but also whether . . . or

Conjunctive adverbs or transitional words and phrases:These show relationships between sentences or independent (main) clauses; they also may serve as transitions within sentences or clauses.

Examples of Conjunctive adverbs or transitional words and phrases:
All the trucks are new. Furthermore, some of the cars are new.
*The cow escaped from the barn; however, we found her in the meadow.
We were glad we found the cow; she was glad, in fact, to see us.
The horse, meanwhile, jumped the fence and never returned.
***NOTE: When used between 2 independent clauses, it requires a semi-colon, the conjunctive adverb and a comma.



Conjunctive Adverbs or Transitions Meaning Conjunctive Adverbs or Transitions Meaning
  • additionally
  • also
  • equally important
  • furthermore
  • in addition
  • likewise
  • moreover
and
  • additionally
  • also
  • equally important
  • furthermore
  • in addition
  • likewise
  • moreover
as a specific case
or example
  • conversely
  • however
  • in contrast
  • in spite of
  • nevertheless
  • notwithstanding
  • on the contrary
  • on the other hand
  • still
but, yet
  • indeed
  • in fact
  • certainly
  • truly
  • surely
for emphasis
  • first
  • then
  • next
  • afterward
  • subsequently
at a specific time or in a specific order meanwhile at the same time or during the interval

Subordinators: Subordinators are words and phrases that signal dependent (subordinate) clauses. Subordinating conjunctions introduce dependent clauses and signal the relationship between the dependent clause and a word, phrase, or other clause. Another type of subordinators are relative pronouns which introduce and/or serve as subjects of dependent clauses.

Examples of Subordinators:
Because we were late, we missed the first half of the movie.**NOTE: A comma is needed when the dependent clause comes before an independent clause.
The students were sad when their teacher cancelled the test.**NOTE: A comma is not needed when the dependent clause follows an independent clause.
If we study tonight, we will pass the test tomorrow.
The house that we bought last year has doubled in value.
The house we bought last year has doubled in value. [implied that]
I liked the man who taught me to read.
Subordinating Conjunctions
(introduces dependent clauses)
Time Space Condition or
Concession
Comparison or
Contrast
Cause or Effect
as
after
as soon as
once
since
until
whenever
while
where
wherever
as
as if
as though
before
even
how
if
less than
more than
provided that
so long as
than
unless
whether
why
although
even though
though
whereas
because
in order that
inasmuch as
since
so that


Relative Pronouns
(introduce or serve as subject of dependent clauses)
that which
whichever
who
whoever
whose
whom
whomever
what
whatever

Comments: writcent@tcc.edu
Last updated on November 05, 2001
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