Conjunctions:Coordinating conjunctions (also known as coordinators)
connect words, phrases, or clauses of equivalent grammatical structure or serve
as transitions between sentences. Students should memorize these seven words
and their functions. Some people learn these words with the memory clue, the
mnemonic, BOYFANS or FANBOYS (FOR, AND, NOR, BUT, YET, SO).
Examples of Coordinating Conjunctions:
The cars in the showroom and on the highways are large,
but they are safe.
The children can go swimming, or they can go bowling.
****Note- use a comma plus the coordinating conjuction if it connects 2 independent
||shows opposition or contrast ("however")
||indicates choices or alternatives
||shows an occurrence in spite of another occurrence
||indicates a cause will follow in a cause-effect relationship
||indicates additional information will follow
||shows a negative option ("not this either")
||indicates a result will follow in a cause-effect relationship
These are pairs of connectors that function together to join words, phrases,
and clauses. Remember that the items that follow each correlative conjunction
must be grammatically parallel to one another.
Examples of Correlative Conjunctions:
Not only werewolves stalk
the forest at night but also vampires stalk the
We hoped that either the garlic or
the crosses would scare them.
August 4, 2003
|as . . . as
||both . . . and
||either . . . or
|neither . . . nor
||not . . . but
||not only . . . but also
||whether . . . or
adverbs or transitional words and phrases:These show relationships
between sentences or independent (main) clauses; they also may serve as transitions
within sentences or clauses.
Examples of Conjunctive adverbs or transitional words
All the trucks are new. Furthermore, some of the cars
*The cow escaped from the barn; however, we found her in the meadow.
We were glad we found the cow; she was glad, in fact, to see us.
The horse, meanwhile, jumped the fence and never returned.
***NOTE: When used between 2 independent clauses, it requires a semi-colon,
the conjunctive adverb and a comma.
|Conjunctive Adverbs or Transitions
||Conjunctive Adverbs or Transitions
- equally important
- in addition
- equally important
- in addition
|as a specific case
- in contrast
- in spite of
- on the contrary
- on the other hand
- in fact
|at a specific time or in a specific order
||at the same time or during the interval
Subordinators are words and phrases that signal dependent
(subordinate) clauses. Subordinating conjunctions introduce dependent clauses
and signal the relationship between the dependent clause and a word, phrase,
or other clause. Another type of subordinators are relative pronouns which
introduce and/or serve as subjects of dependent clauses.
Examples of Subordinators:
Because we were late, we missed the first half of the
movie.**NOTE: A comma is needed when the dependent clause comes before an independent
The students were sad when their teacher cancelled the test.**NOTE: A comma
is not needed when the dependent clause follows an independent clause.
If we study tonight, we will pass the test tomorrow.
The house that we bought last year has doubled in value.
The house we bought last year has doubled in value. [implied that]
I liked the man who taught me to read.
(introduces dependent clauses)
|Cause or Effect
as soon as
so long as
in order that
| Relative Pronouns
(introduce or serve as subject of dependent clauses)
Last updated on November 05, 2001